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Due to the variety of Toroidal Transformers that we offer, the wiring colours can differ between our transformers. From this, we have detailed the circuit diagrams for our Transformers below. Please inspect the colours of the wires from your transformer and match it to the correct transformer wiring diagram. Also please note that each transformer winding has a start (S) and finish (F) as labelled in the diagrams.
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A toroidal transformer is a type of electrical transformer constructed with a torus or donut-shaped core. Its primary and secondary windings are wound across the entire surface of the torus core, separated by an insulating material. This configuration minimizes the magnetic flux leakage. Therefore, a toroidal core is regarded as the ideal transformer core design.
Toroidal transformers are suitable for sensitive and critical electronic circuits because of several advantages over traditional square and rectangular-shaped transformers. Some of these advantages are high efficiency, quiet operation, minimal heat generation, and compact size. They are mostly seen in power supply systems, audio systems, control equipment, power inverters, and other electronic devices.
Before going into the specifics of toroidal transformers, it is best to first understand the basic operating principles of electrical transformers. An electrical transformer is a passive machine that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another using a magnetic field to induce an electromotive force. This is done while the circuits being electrically isolated from each other. Transformers are used to increase (step-up) or decrease (step-down) voltages without changing the frequency of the electric current.
The simplest transformer is a single-phase transformer. It has two electrical coils called primary and secondary windings. The primary winding is where the power supply is connected, while the secondary winding is where electricity is induced. These windings are wrapped in a closed-loop magnetic core.
The two windings are not electrically connected but are coupled by a magnetic field. Voltage can be increased or decreased in the secondary winding by altering the number of coils of a winding relative to the other. Since the transformer is considered a linear device, the voltage generated in the secondary winding can be predicted by determining the ratio of the number of turns of the windings. The result is known as the turns ratio (TR).
Simply put, power is obtained by multiplying voltage by the current. A transformer without any losses can be considered a constant power device, meaning the generated power in the secondary winding is the same as the power supply in the primary winding. Thus, to increase the voltage, the current must be decreased, and vice versa.
Copper loss is due to the resistance of the copper windings. All conductors have electrical resistances that cause a voltage drop as an electrical current passes through them. This loss cannot be easily reduced since it requires increasing the cross-section of the conductor. Consequently, this will require a larger and more expensive transformer. This loss causes a release in energy from the windings in the form of heat.
Stray loss is from the leakage of the magnetic field that influences other conductive parts of the transformer. Since this magnetic field is weak compared to what is present in the iron core, the eddy currents produced by stray magnetic fields cause negligible effect.
Transformer dielectric materials are the turn-to-turn or layer-to-layer insulation of the windings. Larger transformers also use transformer oil to insulate while preventing arcing and dissipating heat. Dielectric loss is caused by the degradation of the insulating materials and the transformer oil.
Transformer core shapes can be generally classified as solenoids and toroids. A solenoid is defined as a long, thin conductor that is coiled into tightly packed loops. Its conductor coils are helically wound in a straight direction. They are mostly seen in square and rectangular transformers. Common examples of solenoid cores are laminated EI and UI cores.
However, this is not the case in an actual solenoid, whose length is always finite. Magnetic field lines always form closed loops. Because of this, some of the flux escapes at the ends of the solenoid to complete the loop. Without a conductive material to contain the magnetic flux, it can pass through other conductors outside the solenoid. This then contributes to the energy losses of the transformer.
Similar to an ideal solenoid, an ideal toroid would perfectly contain the magnetic flux. The magnetic flux density is concentrated inside the coil, while none is present in the outside regions. The ideal design of a toroid core is much more achievable than that of a solenoid. It does not need to be infinitely long since it is configured into a loop. The only requirement for the achieving a perfect design is to create windings that are uniformly and tightly wound to the whole toroid. This is likely why Faraday, when he discovered induction, used a toroidal core instead of a solenoid. Moreover, since a toroid is circular in construction, the magnetic flux easily forms a loop without requiring an additional return path.
The previous chapter discussed the fundamental differences between solenoid and toroid cores. By further analyzing these concepts, the benefits and limitations of both designs can be determined. Below are the advantages and disadvantages of toroidal transformers in comparison with other transformer types.
Transformer efficiency is the ratio of the output power of the secondary windings to the supplied power to the primary windings. Toroidal transformers have higher efficiency than other transformers, typically around 95 to 99%. This can be attributed to its near-ideal design, which perfectly contains the magnetic flux inside the windings. Thus, there is no leakage flux. Since the magnetic flux is highly concentrated inside the coil windings and the windings are evenly distributed to the whole toroid core, the magnetic flux is efficiently utilized to couple the primary and secondary windings.
Because of the effective containment of the magnetic flux, toroidal cores inherently shield adjacent components from electromagnetic interference (EMI). This characteristic makes them suitable for electronic devices with sensitive components. Transformers with solenoid cores are prone to leaking magnetic flux, additional shielding is used to prevent solenoid cores from creating EMI. The additional shielding only adds to their cost and size.
Minimal signal distortion is an advantage of transformers with low leakage flux. Leakage flux or stray magnetic fields can induce stray currents when their magnetic field lines cross nearby conductors. This allows unwanted signals to appear or interfere with other sensitive signals. This problem is highly evident in low-power circuits, where the signal can be easily distorted. That is why toroidal transformers are extensively used in audio systems, medical devices, measuring instruments, and power analyzers, where high signal resolution is required.
In single-phase transformers with EI and UI cores, additional material is added to its construction to provide a return path for the magnetic flux. EI cores have three limbs, only one of which is used for bearing the conductor coil. Thus, the core uses less than a third of its structure. For UI cores, there are two limbs used for carrying the coil, and both are used for carrying the coil, making the core utilization of UI cores higher. However, in this construction, the yoke is made larger than that of an EI core. Both the yokes of the EI and UI cores do not carry the conductor coils.
These problems are eliminated in toroidal cores. Transformers employing toroidal cores utilize the entirety of the core. There are no additional return paths to be added since the core is already looped in construction. This allows its construction to be much smaller than similarly rated EI and UI-cored transformers.
This advantage is a direct consequence of having a smaller core construction. Having a smaller core means fewer materials are used. The typical material for transformer cores is silicon steel. For more specialized applications, more expensive core materials and constructions are preferred because of their desirable characteristics, such as high permeability, low hysteresis, and low eddy current generation. Examples of these core materials are permalloys, cobalt-based amorphous alloys, and nanocrystalline materials.
Off-load losses are transformer losses caused by magnetizing the core even when there is no load connected to the secondary circuit. Transformers tend to consume power even in standby mode. Because of their efficient construction, core losses in a toroidal transformer are lower than in ordinary solenoid-core transformers. This means toroidal have fewer off-load losses.
Although toroidal transformers have smaller profiles and use fewer materials, they are more expensive to make than other transformer types. This is due to the difficulty of winding the conductor coils around the toroid core. The process takes longer since each coil must be wound one at a time. The case is different with EI and UI coils. They are initially disassembled to their E and I piece. The limbs on which the coils are wound are easily accessible, enabling mass production.
Toroidal transformers are limited to single-phase applications. There are three-phase toroidal transformers available in the market, but they are less popular than the conventional core and shell-type transformers. Three-phase toroidal transformers are only used in special applications. 041b061a72